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Music As Political Activism: A Case Study Of Fela Anikulapo Kuti’s Afro-beat

October 23, 2012

Topic: Music As Political Activism: A Case Study Of Fela Anikulapo Kuti’s Afro-beat

By: OGIDAN .P. DAMILOLA

Supervisor: Prof. Solomon O. Akinboye

Institution: University of Lagos

Faculty/Department: Social Sciences/Political Science

Year: 2011

Being a project submitted to The Department Of Political Science, Faculty Of Social Sciences, University Of Lagos in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of bachelor of science (BSC) political science degree

 

ABSTRACT

Just like political science, music has no definite definition it’s just the perspective from which it is seen. While some scholars argue it is an artful arrangement of sound over time, others argue that it is a form of mental image and sounds are mere by product of this mental image. However, politics and music have a lot in common and have come a long way hand in hand. Right from the days  of  classical music during the periods of Alexandra the great and when religion was seen as the basis for the conduct of human activity down to the era of hip hop and democracy music has always been useful politically. This long term relationship has not been academically recognized. The national anthem that takes us down memory lane of our political history pays its respect to music. This study was therefore motivated in a quest to determine if  music has actually affected political development especially in Nigeria. Primary data were generated from key respondent drawn by means of convenience and random sampling methods from people with links to the  Nigerian music industry and links to musician who were involved in one way or the other in politics. Tested hypothesis shows that music has and can affect political development. This study confirms that music could actually do more in political development if more musicians pay more heed to political issues in the country and care less about fame and wealth as they will come after. It has however been said by one of Africans political heads Kwame Nkrumah that seek ye the political kingdom and every other thing shall be added unto you.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

When we look around us, we see a lot of things that relate to art, ranging from music to literature, film, photography, sculpture, and paintings, it encompasses our reality. In simplistic terms, art refers to the product or process of deliberately arranging symbolic elements in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect. Traditionally, the term art was used to refer to any skill or mastery. This conception changed during the Romantic period, when art came to be seen as a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science. generally, art is made with the intention of stimulating thoughts and emotions. It has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating. Tolstoy (1987) identified art as a use of indirect means to communicate from one person to another. Croce and Collingwood (1993) advanced the idealist view that art expresses emotions and that the work of art therefore essentially exists in the mind of the creator. Art as mimesis or representation has deep roots in the philosophy of Aristotle.

A major usage of art is to portray ideas such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophical way, but however, it can also be used to show meaning, Like People can use art to show love, to show boredom and to show creativity. Art can also be used to liven things up. It may not have a specific idea or meaning but it can be used to make things look better and more complete. Art is also a great tool for learning, it is fun and acts as an interactive tool for reluctant learners and younger students. Many people depend on it as it has become a relevant source of lively hood. Art can show the passage of time, It also acts as a great thinking agent. Art can also be used to criticize some aspect of the society. It is often utilized as a form of propaganda and thus can be used to subtly influence popular conception or mood. Lastly, art connects people around the world. (Chin, 1999).

Art has been used variously for political representations all over the world, ranging from the works of Amiri Baraka, an American playwright, poet, and political activist with plays like The Slave (1964), which dealt with the corrosive effects of racism, Breyten Breytenbach, a South African writer, painter, and political activist, André Brink, also a South African writer and political activist with his best-known book, A Dry White Season (1979), Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian lawyer, activist, writer, and winner of the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to advance democracy and human rights in Iran with books like The Rights of the Child: A Study of Legal Aspects of Children’s Rights in Iran (1994) and History and Documentation of Human Rights in Iran (2000),  Ebrahim Hussein, a Tanzanian playwright who produced plays in Swahili, such as Kinjeketile (1970), which focused on the ideological struggle for a just society. Also Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ngugi wa Miri in Kenya produced I Will Marry When I Want (1977), The play focuses on indigenous exploitation and was performed in Kikuyu by and for the villagers in a theater they built. Nigerian playwrights of the 1970s also produced plays that were more specifically concerned with the social and moral effects of dictatorship. Bode Sowande explores the themes of corruption and exploitation in Afamako—The Workhorse (1978) and Flamingoes (1982). Babafemi Osofisan deploys Brechtian alienation effects as well as storytelling and role-playing to introduce revolutionary potential into plots based on traditions or legends: The Chattering and the Song (1977) and Esu and the Vagabond Minstrels (1991), Femi Osofisan’s Once Upon Four Robbers (1980) bases its political commentary on the government’s practice of publicly executing armed robbers, Soyinka’s A Play of Giants (1984) ridicules Africa’s flamboyant dictators. These among several others exist in Nigeria, Africa, and the world at large.

Music is a form of art whose medium is sound. The word derives from Greek (art) of the Muses. The interaction with sound is unavoidable, either to make it or take pleasure in it. People have always found music significant in their lives, whether for enjoyment in listening, the emotional response, performing, or creating. This is no different for classical music or contemporary concert music. Both forms of music have immense worth for our society. Music is part of virtually every culture on Earth, but it varies widely among cultures in style and structure. Definitions of music can change dramatically over a short time, as they have across the world during the 20th century. in Gilbert Galindo, view (2003)

“The role of arts and music in our society fill a void that we all need in order to enrich ourselves and our culture, they provide alternate infinite experiences, and they also further enhance the skills we use in other disciplines and professions. Recently, the arts have been sneaking into mainstream culture and gaining the attention of viewers, through shows like “So You Think You Can Dance,” or “The Colbert Report” with references to living composers such as Steve Reich or guests from the jazz and classical world (Wynton Marsalis and Alex Ross).”

Just like the discipline, Political Science, music has no definite definition it’s just the perspective from which it is seen. While some scholars argue it is an artful arrangement of sound over time, others argue that it is a form of mental image and sounds which are simply bye product of a mental image. However, politics and music have a lot in common and have come a long way hand in hand. Right from the days  of  classical music during the periods of Alexandra the great and when religion was seen as the basis for the conduct of human activity down to the era of hip hop and democracy, music has always been useful politically.

In recent times, musicians and song writers over the world have put their talents to serve social causes, to express political statements, to voice the plight of the repressed. In America, the sixties saw the coining of the phrase “protest song,” as Bob Dylan, Joan Baez and a plethora of author artists were protesting the Vietnam War. “A Hard Rain Is Gonna Fall” they said, and it did. Woodstock wasn’t far away, neither was Jimi Hendrix’ warped rendition of the U.S. national anthem, reflecting what he thought of his country then. Just about at the same time, a dilettante John Lennon was singing “Happiness is a warm gun.” Little did he know then that on a cold December night, the warmth of a gun would take his life. In the Caribbean, drenched in sun and music, the Jamaican reggae cum rasta phenomenon propelled Micheal Manley to power. He was replaced after a while, but not before Jimmy Cliff and Bob Marley had time to spread the “Stand up for your rights” philosophy. (Jean-Pierre Cloutier 1987). Others include Denver john, Luigi Nono (1924-1990), an Italian composer, Quaker, Bonnie Raitt who championed social causes and has worked for victims of political persecution in Latin American countries, U2, an Irish rock music band, which achieved worldwide popularity during the 1980s and 1990s. they subsequently grew famous for its commitment to political causes, including prominent support for international human rights. The band’s 1988 release, Rattle and Hum was marked by uncharacteristic explorations of folk music and blues.

Coming down to Nigeria, afro-beat’s Fela Anikulapo Kuti remains a central figure in rhythmic opposition, especially since the aborted Third Republic. Rhythmic opposition has witnessed a rise in the number of stars, among which are Wasiu Ayinde, Eedris Abdul-karim, Tuface Idiabia, 9ice, and Asa, among others, that have embraced rhythmic opposition particularly on issues of corruption, mismanagement, and other areas of government failures. (Tobi Oshodi, 2010).

Music is the medium that connects the written word to social rights issues, conveying a message of hope for the audience. Music is a form of freedom and expression, often used to evoke political issues, serving as an advocator, campaigner and inspirer of social justice. Melodies and lyrics that seek justice amid and beyond cities and nations, into the global realm, have marked significant eras in history and the fight for freedom and tolerance.

More than than 70 percent of Nigerians live in poverty; life expectancy is less than 54 years; infant mortality and maternal mortality are around 77 per 1,000 & 704 per 100,000 respectively; only about 10 percent of the population had access to essential drugs; fewer than 30 physicians per 100,000 people; more than 5 million adults living with HIV/AIDS; among children under 5, almost 30 percent were underweight while only 17 percent of children were fully immunized; the 1999 UN Human Development Index placed Nigeria 146th in a survey of 174; only about half the population had access to drinking water (40 percent in rural areas, 80 percent in urban areas); some 29 percent of the total population lived at risk of annual floods; more than 90 percent of the rural population depended on forests for livelihood and domestic energy sources; rural households spent an average of 1.5 hours a day collecting water and fuel wood, with an average of one kilometre a day to collect water and fuel wood; insecurity is not only captured by the inability of the state to ensure reduction in armed robbery but unnecessary ethno-religious conflicts have continued to lead to the loss of innocent lives at predictable and unpredictable intervals; among others other paradox of underdevelopment (Obadina, 1999: 8; Ajakaiye and Olomola, 2003; Federal Government, 2005: 28-30; Ojo, 2006: 120; Oshodi, 2009a and 2009b). Meanwhile, elected politicians manage to allocate and pass allowances for travels running into millions.  These and many more are the issues that comprise Nigeria’s economic and political scène and this calls for alarm. With the country as a whole at stake, one cannot help but wonder what the masses of the people are doing to curb the advert effect of the situation. However, with military domination of the political system for a longer time than civil rule (the military has dominated the political scene for thirty years leaving the politicians with twenty years of civil rule), the peoples voices have been killed and the morale for opposition is at a very minimal level.

Political activism  however is much more than turning out on voting day and ticking a ballot sheet. That is far too passive and ineffective, and will never be enough to halt the current erosion of community and the destruction of our planet. Instead, to become a bona fide activist, we have to do much more, we have to have such a burning desire to make a difference that we are willing to embody the solution in ourselves, without only resorting to the all too easy recourse of vilifying politicians, governments and/or multinationals (although it is important to first identify the problem step in trying to find a solution). To embody the solution takes courage, commitment and a deep understanding of the power of our minds. (Andrew, 2003).

The forms of reaction that have existed in Nigeria ranges from leakages to the press in form of propaganda, rally’s, protest walks which involves the carrying of banners, strikes, kidnapping like in the Niger Delta, women protesting naked as Mimiko urged women to Protest Naked against corruption in October 2010, lobbying with international organizations and external government like Ken Sarowiwa, sabotage, arson;  like destruction of government property, riots and even dialogue, Example was in 2004 when Asari Dokubo president of the Ijaw Youth Council (IJC) dialogued with the then Nigerian president, Olusegun Obasanjo of which he was arrested. All this has obviously not worked to its maximum capacity. Taking the Niger Delta kidnapping for instance, the resolution of the case lead to the vague so called amnesty of which still, those peoples request have not been granted. The ASUU strike is another example. It keeps happening and happening all over again and the peoples cries are not still answered. Rather, they are told to resume back and they keep postponing all their request till another strike comes up again. In many other cases, the activist are either arrested or killed.

A true activist first of all must however acknowledge the power of mind. There is no other road to healing; consciousness must be fundamental. In the process of doing this he or she realizes that the root cause of the ecological destruction and social injustices in the world are not “out there” but “in here”… in our own minds, and it is therefore “in here” that we must start the healing process. (Andrew, 2003). This is where music comes to play, the emotional response, performing, or creating, a form of mental image and sounds are mere by product of this mental image. Music deals largely with the mind either from the position of creating it or from the position of receiving it, its messages are delivered straight to the mind that sooner or later becomes a part of your subconscious probably unknowingly to you.

“Another key to the order in music is the music being the same and different. The brain works by looking at different pieces of information and deciding if they are different or the same. This is done in music of the baroque and classical periods by playing a theme and then repeating or changing the theme. The repetition is only done once. More than one repetition causes the music to become displeasing, and also causes a person to either enter a state of sub-conscious thinking or a state of anger. Dr. Ballam [NOTE: Write year] goes on to say that, “The human mind shuts down after three or four repetitions of a rhythm, or a melody, or a harmonic progression.” Furthermore, excessive repetition causes people to release control of their thoughts. Rhythmic repetition is used by people who are trying to push certain ethics in their music.” (O’Donnell, 1999)

This and so much more are the powers of music.

Fela’s ideology is a “matrix” of radical black nationalism which opened out to a much more expansive Pan-Africanism and Afro-centrism and a sturdy partisanship for the oppressed lower classes that could be described as socialist in orientation and an irrepressible libertarianism that frequently tries to be the anchor and articulator of the other two. Fela’s solidarity with the oppressed lower classes was complete. He lived in their midst, trumpeted their sounds to national attention, experienced their brutalization at the hands of official lawlessness, and even shared their poverty.( Olaniyan , 1977). Recalling for me Albert Memmi’s notion of class suicide. Olaniyan also offers this aspect of Fela who is not born into the oppressed lower classes as consummate an example of class suicide as we can get in the world of actual struggle. The musical style performed by Fela Kuti is called Afro-Beat, which is essentially a fusion of jazz, funk, psychedelic rock, and traditional West African chants and rhythms. As Iwedi Ojinmah points out in his Article “Baba is Dead – Long Live Baba,” Afro beat also borrows heavily from the native “tinker pan” African-style percussion that Fela acquired while studying in Ghana with Hugh Masakela, under the uncanny Hedzoleh Soundz. Afro beat is also characterized by having vocals, and musical structure, along with jazzy, funky horn sections. The endless groove is also used, in which a base rhythm of drums, shekere, muted guitar, and bass guitar are repeated throughout the song.

1.2       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of a particular study or research is embedded in the intention to resolve a problem. Consequently, this study aims at:

1          Establishing the fact that music is a critical and essential instrument of political activism.

2          To demonstrate how music has been used an instrument of political activism in time past especially in Nigeria.

3          Ascertaining that music can be used to curb ill practices in the political scène, i.e. political reforms.

4          To recommend solutions options as to where problems are inherent and obvious as regard this study.

 

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1          Can music be a tool of political activism?

2          Can music as a tool of political activism lead to development in Nigeria?

1.4       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

H1: Listening to songs about political activism would increase the possibility of being involved in political activism.

H0 : Listening to songs about political activism would not increase the possibility of being involved in political activism.

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of any research lies in its contribution to the improvement of life by way of possessing the potential or application to problems. In doing so, this study proposes a better, more reserved and classic form of political activism that does not involve a lot of human strength or endangering a lot of lives and property physically. This form of activism proposes an intellectual approach (dealing with the brains and mind) to solving both political and social problems faced in modern day Nigeria

Most research topics in political science would focus probably on elections, foreign policy, public administration and the likes but this research with its new dimension is made in an attempt not just to solve societal problems but to widening the scope of political science to give it a more interesting fun edge. Imagine a course like “political music” being taken in the department of political science as probably a first degree undergraduate course, the student especially the youth which occupy the bulk of the first degree undergraduate would love it so much as this would increase their zeal to want to learn other aspects of political science as a whole. It would even give political science a degree of distinction and uniqueness among the social sciences.

As Nigeria strives to meet up with the twenty first century conditionality’s, new and modern approaches are needed to achieve this aim as such, This study therefore is necessary.

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is designed to embrace the totality of music and its relation to political activism especially in Nigeria mainly drawing from the works of Fela Anikulapo Kuti, the number one musical political activist in Nigeria. It is also designed to embrace the effect of music on the Nigerian population especially the youths who are the future leaders of tomorrow as such, the running wheel of any society. However, because of financial and time constraints, the analysis of the effect of music on youth will be limited to only students in the University Of Lagos.

1.7       LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Financial and time constraints has not allowed for the availability of the study to be taken national. It would only be taken national with secondary data. This to some extent reduces the fun a researcher would get when carrying out a research

Music being a creative aspect of human existences has tended to make this study look a little playful. Little did they know it is more serious than they thought. Most times as a researcher, when I tell people about my topic, they just first of all give it a round of laugh thereby making the research quite frustrating at first but because of my zeal and determination based on the fact that I want to contribute to the betterment of the existence of humanity, I was able to pull through. Besides, the response from youths was very outstanding as they were eager to be a part if this fabulous presentation

Considering the hypnotic power of music, a lot of governmental restrains have been kept on music an example is the ban on some songs. This however has not allowed for the tapping into the full potential of the power of music in political activism

            RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research will make use of both primary and secondary sources. In order to obtain primary data, research questionnaire were developed and personally administered by the researcher to student of various faculties of the University Of Lagos. Primary data obtained from respondents will be classified into sampling proportions using the single percentage. This would allow for easy interpretations and detailed discussions. Data will specifically be presented in tables with description. The sampling size will be determined by means of convenience sampling technique. Also, a structured interview with a key respondent will be conducted to obtain as well as verify data.

The secondary data will be gotten from specifically books, journals, internet materials, general discussion with people inclusive of class lectures news papers, magazines, office reports and statistics.

1.8       OUTLINE OF THE STUDY

The study will be presented in five chapters. Chapter one of the study incorporates introduction/background to the study, purpose of the study, research questions, hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, and conceptual clarification. The second chapter incorporates appropriate review of literature, and the theoretical framework. The third chapter will consist of a review of the case study, analyzing the life and times of Fela Anikulapo Kuti and the impact of his music on the Nigerian political system. The fourth chapter shall highlight research methodology, data analysis, interpretation of data and testing of hypothesis. The last chapter provides summary, findings and conclusions based on observation. It also highlight recommendations in the light of the problem investigated.

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms as defined below were used in the body of this research report accordingly.

Influence

This refers to the effect of something on a person thing or event that is somebody or something that is able to affect the course of event or somebody’s thinking or action.

Youth

Somebody who is young, preferably in his or her teens or early twenties that is the period of human life between childhood and maturity.

Political development

the development of the institutions, attitudes, and values that form the political power system of a society in relations to the feasible set of options open to solving political problems.

Power

The ability, strength, or capacity to do something. i.e. the possession of controlling influence.

Opposition

This refers to a disapproving attitude toward something and a wish to prevent it, or action taken to show disapproval of and prevent something.

 

REFERENCES

Annie J. Randall (2004) “Music, Power, and Politics” Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

James Garratt(2010) “Music, Culture, and Social Reform in the Age of Wagner” Cambridge, Cambridge UniversityPress.

Jean-Pierre Cloutier (1987)  “Music and Politics”, Initially published in the Spring of 1987 in The Haiti Times.

J. Hill and Dave Ramsaran.(2009) “Hip Hop and Inequality: Searching for the “Real” Slim Shady” Simona Amherst, N.Y, Cambria Press.

Laudan Nooshin(2009), “Music and the Play of Power in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia”. Farnham, England, SOAS Musicology Series

Laurence O’Donnell, Music and the Brain(http//www.cerebromente.org.br/n15/mente/musica.html)

Mark E. Smith, “Art, Music, and Politics,” Edited by Michael Goddard and Benjamin Halligan (2010) Burlington, Ashgate Popular and Folk Music Series.

Tobi Oshodi, McPhilips Nwachuckwu, and Hugo Odiogor (2011), “From solidarity melodies to rhythmic opposition: music and politics in Nigeria (1960-2010)

http://www.answers.com/topic/

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      INTRODUCTION

Music and its relationship with political activism was an area that had attracted attention from a few scholars, but in recent times, however, the need becomes inherent has contemporary youth exposure to music increased via portable music players and phones including iPods, I phones, and blackberry’s, this has made them so attached to music as very often, they walk around the street with ear piece stuck in their ears and they are lost in this world of music and forget the present world they are in.

Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents. Listening to popular music is considered by society to be a part of growing up.( American academy of pediatrics, 2009). The aspect of political activism thus comes to the lime light with impact of music on youth who are the running will of the society and the future of such society. Rightfully noted by The Dixie Chicks (2007) “As political issues begin to seep into the lives of teens and young adults, the regular conventions of popular music need to be changing to altercate to this shift in culture”.

2.2      LITERATURE REVIEW

Political activism through music has over the years been a common factor such as rap music in the early 1980’s became highly politicized in the united states. Jaclyn Nardone (2009)  drawing largely from the works  and life of John Lennon (1940-1980), world renowned musician (former ‘Beatle’ until 1969) and peace activist, asserts that Lennon used his music to fight unjust politics, promote his opposition to the Vietnam war, and express his love for the human race. As such, He understood that people could be changed. By changing the system, (the Irish, Russians and French did it but got them nowhere.) it is the same old game. Thus, Lennon was inspired to adapt new measures and change people and politics through his music. In other words, moving to change the system first without changing the people that comprise the society would be a fruitless endeavor. Music thus come to play the primary role of changing the people from their minds so further changes to the system could be fruitful. Jaclyn Nardone further asserts that culture is music, thus politicizing music is a means of arousing political culture.

Paul Buzenski (2008) in his own view asserts that music plays a critical role in the electioneering process of a country. He supports his points by asserting that musicians such as Bob Dylan, Billy Joel, Bruce Springsteen, Dixie Chicks, Elton John, Grateful Dead, Madonna, Ne-Yo, The Decemberists, The Goo-Goo Dolls among a host of others have held concerts, primarily for Barack Obama, as a way of influencing America. These icons of popular culture can have a profound influence on potential voters.  An example of this influence was the concert held in Philadelphia by Bruce Springsteen. This Bruce Springsteen’s concert in Philadelphia was to act as “…a catalyst for the disengaged to register to vote”. Plenty of people heard the call and according to the Obama campaign, some 21,000 new voters were registered as a result of the event. This also helped Clinton to win his presidency by mobilizing the young people. Likewise, in 2008, Rock Activists such as Billy Joel and Bruce Springsteen held concerts to support and gather votes for the candidates and they registered almost 2.3 million young people who by and large support Obama and probably facilitated Obama’s victory over McCain. The outcome of this election was heavily influenced by a process of political Activism through music which have a potent effect on the political processes of The United States of America.

This is also evident in the Nigerian political system as evident in songs used as political jingles and musicians playing an important role during political campaigns. Goodluck Jonathan recognized the importance of this and allied with several popular entertainment figures including D’banj  to campaign for his election in 2011, of which he won.

Austin ‘Maro Emielu  (2008) asserts that political activism through music is most evident in the role music plays in youth empowerment. He supports this assertion on the basis that “a professionalized music industry will midwife institutionalization of  specialized sectors, which will become the engine for growth, development and empowerment for youths with interest in the  music industry”. Drawing examples from Nigeria, he lays emphasis on the importance of the Nigerian music industry which if fully tapped into, can replace crude oil as the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy. He  further asserts that “popular music can be used as a veritable instrument for ideological change and mass re-orientation. Popular music can also be put to a variety of uses, in product advertisement, promoting government programs and policies and also in becoming a social voice for the ‘voiceless’, oppressed and deprived masses as we can find in the case of Fela’s Afro-Beat. Finally, the massive entry of the feminine folk into popular music in contemporary times represent another form of women empowerment which has been a major pre-occupation of women and feminist activist in government, the academia and other women rights organization in recent history”.

Barrer, (2009) opines that rap’s improvement in the society are peculiar and notable. He studied how rap improved the social conditions of the people in Slovak. Giving  illustrations on how rap provides a vector of advantaged admission to discourses within Slovak society. Aside from that his essay also demonstrates an approach into how a global music phrase has been accustomed and re-modeled with local meanings. “A key part of rap’s appeal and capacity to provoke audiences lies in its lyrical content, which  aggressively counters official standards in language and the thematic norms of other styles of contemporary popular music.”

Drawing largely from the works of Condry, Karen Lopez (2008) advocates that there are four basic music genres of which social activism are promoted. These music genres include rap music, folk and jazz with funk, punk rock, and reggae. Giving illustration from Japan, he explains  that rap in Japan pays allegiance to African-American rap music as such the fan of rap in Japan always tend to want to copy these rap musicians by having dreadlocks and sporting tanned skins which is an African-American culture. Thus, Japanese’s culture is exchanged with another in this context. He as such concludes that “positive improvement of hip-hop in Japan could be misleading and was  never meant to become a channel for progressive changes in the country.”

D.L. Chandler (2006) asserts that there is a false marriage between music and political activism. He supports his thesis on the basis that what the youths are listening to, wearing on their backs and so forth is always an important gauge as how to promote candidates and ideas. By this he meant that music has become a marketing tool rather than a message deliverer in the hand of contemporary musicians. He further explained that the politically charged Hip Hop of the 80s and early 90s in America dealt with inherently black and minority issues – just like Chuck D coined the overused phrase of rap music being the “CNN of the streets”. Those streets housed the tales of the working poor, the disenfranchised, the uncounted and, more importantly, people of color. Even they (the people they were singing to fight for ) no longer have a relevant voice in regards to popular entertainers championing their plight. He concluded that he struggling to find out how to meld all he knows in order to help the fabric of the country. He wants to find that credible balance of how music can be a message deliverer and not a marketing tool. “I want to find the path to gaining knowledge in song and verse but not sacrificing quality or talent”. And that he will continue to press on with my mission: to educate, enlighten and promote all the good that Hip Hop is and making sure that it isn’t whored by those who don’t treasure it – only using it to gain young eyes and ears for commercial consumption. In other words that he is not trying to be the enemy of music as political activism but that musicians have misused the powers of music lately for their personal gains.

Due to the above analysis on the misuse of the powers of music, there have been claims and clamors that there should be censorship of music. In Bruce W. Coffman and David Furritus (2008) view, Censorship of music reduces the possibility of music as political activism. They argue it is one small step towards chipping away at our already vulnerable freedom of speech and free expression. They advocate that musicians, writers and all other freedom loving Americans should rail against any form of music censorship unless they want to find themselves having the ideas and speech suppressed in other ways. They concluded that the only means of censorship that should exist is good parenting. “Parents should discuss with their kids what they listen to and maybe take the time to listen to the music with them. They don’t have to like the music, but they should at least find out what’s blaring out of their kid’s iPods at the threshold of pain every day… go with them to the store and take an active role in helping them purchase something more appropriate.. If you’re too lazy to do that, then please don’t complain about what they’re exposed to because it is your job as a parent to protect them from unwanted influences. It is not the job of a large company or the federal government. It is your job as a parent”.

Alex Ross (1995) places his argument on the role of composers in the society. He believes that the morale is that the composers who begin with writing for the man on the street often end up writing for an elite audience drawing examples from Feldman a German musician and political activist who later started singing solidarity melodies to the elites. That is musicians could first accept to use their music for political activism but after a while, they divert solidarity melodies to the elites for economical, political or social gains. However, tobi oshodi (2010) tends to contradict this view in his analysis of Nigeria that “there is a movement from the hitherto largely musical silence or solidarity of musicians in the First era (1960-1979) towards rhythmic opposition in the current era” with his thesis that the military regimes in Nigeria played a role in limiting freedom of speech as such, limiting political activism through music.

 

2.3      THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

There are different theories and explanatory constructs put forward to explain politics and these theories have mainly revolved around three level of analysis in social sciences: individual, group and systems levels of analysis. Among these theories are Vilfredo Pareto and Gaetano Mosca’s elitism, Arthur Bentley’s group theory, and David Easton’s systems model, among others. Any of these theories could be used to explain the relationship between music and politics in Nigeria. For instance, it might be argued that certain ‘special’ type of music is meant for certain classes in the society. This class separation in itself could be explained in elite terms in which case the special music is one of the many bases of separating individuals and groups in a collection. Similarly, groups could be known for certain songs as was known by members of the Action Group (AG) who were known to sing: “ko so mona to leje ose” which more or less translates to “our opposition cannot dare us.” This song assumed a level of slogan similar to “Power to the People” or “Jeun Soke!” in the Nigerian Fourth Republic. In addition, music could be located within the Eastonian political system in which case it is either used to buttress demands or show loyalty to a governments “authoritative allocation of values” or a means of showing disloyalty and lack of support. (Tobi Oshodi, Hugo Odiogor and Mc Philips Nwachuckwu, 2010).

However, this work hinges its argument on two basic theories, democratic theory generally posited by Robert Dahl, John Rawls, Jurgen Habermas, among others and structural functionalism as generally posited by Talcot Parson, Robert Merton, Radcliffe Brown, Gabriel Almond, and Bingham Powell, among others.

Late in the 20th century, some political scientists rediscovered their Aristotelian roots by returning to the question of how to achieve the good, just, and stable polity that is, by returning to the study of democracy thus, even though there is no specific, universally accepted definition of democracy, equality and freedom have been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times and this serves as the reason for the adoption of this theory. The freedom of speech and equality that encompasses a democratic government serves as a reason why political activism exist which takes a step to be further established by music.

Democratic theory is very broad due to the various conceptions of democracy but however, this work limits its analysis to basically to Robert Dahl’s democratic theory and the deliberative democratic theory. Robert A. Dahl argues that the fundamental democratic principle is that, when it comes to binding collective decisions, each person in a political community is entitled to have his/her interests be given equal consideration. He uses the term polyarchy to refer to societies in which there exists a certain set of institutions and procedures which are perceived as leading to such democracy. In this case, as regards this research such institutions could include the music industry which could help maintain democracy by its dominating influence through political activism that can serve as checks on actions of government. His theory could basically be summarized in to the following;

After reviewing two theoretical concepts of democracy (Madisonian and Populistic), Dahl looks at the characteristics shared by actually existing democracies (circa 1956). He proposes that we think of democracies as polyarchies, and lays out several criteria that can essentially be summed up into the two dimensions (contestation and participation).

The heart of his book is an anti-institutional claim. Dahl says that as Madison we have tended to think that the constitution restrains the majority, but we have been looking in the wrong place. We have neglected the “social checks and balances”, which are ultimately more important than the institutional ones. “In the absence of certain social prerequisites, no constitutional arrangements can produce a non-tyrannical republic

Some preference distributions are compatible with democracy and others are not. In short, single-peaked preferences are compatible with democratic decision making, because policy decisions are acceptable to a majority of citizens. However, double-peaked preferences, in which two equal groups have strongly held and opposing beliefs, are not compatible with democracy (e.g., the US civil war).

Considerable examination is offered of the case of an apathetic majority and a minority with strongly-held preferences. Although the US constitution is often said to be designed to accommodate this type of preference distribution by guaranteeing that the minority will prevail, neither judicial review nor equal representation of the states in the senate provides a solution. “No solution to the intensity problem is possible through constitutional or procedural rules”

So, why does democracy last in the US? According to Dahl, most citizens share a consensus on important values. Representatives also hold these values, so policy decisions rarely deviate from the majority’s core preferences. “With such a consensus [on basic values] the disputes over policy alternatives are nearly always disputes over a set of alternatives that have already been winnowed down to those within the broad area of basic agreement.”Without this prior consensus on basic values, democracy would not survive for very long. The consensus on norms and values protects minorities, not institutional restraints. “To assume that this country has remained democratic because of its constitution seems to me an obvious reversal of the relation; it is much more plausible to suppose that the constitution has remained because our society is essentially democratic.”

From the foregoing, democracy is maintained with consensus on basic values and Musicians apart from being instruments of entertainment also function as a store of culture and tradition (Tobi Oshodi, Hugo Odiogor and Mc Philips Nwachuckwu, 2010), as such, music thus play a vital role in maintaining consensus on basic values by taking the people down their memory lane and heritage as such help them maintain one view, asserts values and helps them focus on the goal they want to achieve. Robert Dahl also mentioned the neglecting of “social checks and balances” which is a lacking factor in democracies. Just like Tobi Oshodi (2010) asserts that music remains a part of (not only social and economic but political) existence in most African societies it thus acts as a social check on the system. It is therefore obvious that the basis of Robert Dahl’s democratic theory directly or indirectly explains music as political activism.

Deliberative democratic theory is based on the notion that democracy is government by discussion. Deliberative democrats contend that laws and policies should be based upon reasons that all citizens can accept. The political arena should be one in which leaders and citizens make arguments, listen, and change their minds. It emphasizes Talk-centric democratic theory to replace voting-centric democratic theory. Voting-centric views see democracy as the arena in which fixed preferences and interests compete via fair mechanisms of aggregation. In contrast, deliberative democracy focuses on the communicative processes of opinion. Deliberative democracy is not usually thought of as an alternative to representative democracy. It is rather an expansion of representative democracy. Theorists of deliberative democracy are interested in such questions as: How does or might deliberation shape preferences, moderate self-interest, empower the marginalized, mediate difference, further integration and solidarity, enhance recognition, produce reasonable opinion and policy, and possibly lead to consensus. Theories of deliberative democracy contain many empirical claims and assumptions, particularly about preference and opinion formation. For example, a central tenet of all deliberative theory is that deliberation can change minds and transform opinions. Although few adhere to the view that deliberation inevitably leads to consensus, many believe that deliberation under the right conditions will have a tendency to broaden perspectives, promote toleration and understanding between groups, and generally encourage a public-spirited attitude (Benhabib1992, Chambers1996, Gutmann&Thompson1996, J. Cohen 1997, Dryzek 2000). The generality of  above explained democratic theory encompasses the whole of the influence and powers of music just as earlier noted in this work the power of music to affect memory and mind is quite intriguing the deliberation constantly talked about seeks to achieve this aim of the intriguing effect of music e.g., “deliberation can change minds and transform opinions”. Conclusively, a major and critical tool that can be used for deliberation is music. As Nigeria seeks to achieve a greater democracy, music should thus be seen as a critical tool of political activism.

Structural functionalism essentially argues that a social system (of which political system is one) is made up of a number of functional elements that contributes to its stability and survival. On his path, Parsons argues that society is a complex of activities directed towards meeting a need or needs of the system. He continues that there are four functional imperatives that are necessary for all systems

Adaptation (A)

Goal Attainment (G)

Integration (I), and

Latency (L) or Pattern maintenance.

These four functional imperatives are known as the AGIL schema. In order to survive, a system must perform these four functions. First, the function of adaptation essentially speaks to the capacity of a system to relate with and cope with external situational exigencies/ environment. It must adapt to its environment and attendant needs. Second, goal attainment relates to defining and achieving its primary goals. It refers to the ability of a system to define its priorities and aims while providing the required structural arrangement for their attainment. Third, the integration function seeks to regulate the inter-relationship of its component parts. This presupposes the ability to ensure coordination and exercise control between the internal elements of the various parts of the social system. Fourth, latency function aims to furnish, maintain and renew both the motivation of individual and the cultural patterns that create and sustain the motivation. It is a dimension that refers to a complexity unit-acts in which actors supply necessary motivation for the system (Adedokun, 1999: 161-162).

But while Tarlcott Parsons may be considered the main originator of structural functionalism in the social sciences, his student Robert Merton authored some of the most important statements on structural functionalism while differing from his teacher in a number of ways. For one thing, while Parsons advocated the creation of grand, overarching theories, Merton favoured more limited, middle-range theories. For another, Merton was more favourable towards Marxian theories than Parsons was. In fact, Merton and some of his students especially Alvin Goulder can be seen as having pushed structural functionalism more to the left politically.

In addition, Merton criticized what he saw as the three basic postulates of Radcliffe Brown and Bronislaw Malinowski functional analysis. The first is the postulate of the functional unity of society. This postulate implies that the various parts of a social system must show a high level of integration. However, Merton maintained that although it may be true of small, primitive societies, this generalization cannot be extended to larger, more complex societies. Universal functionalism is the second postulate. That is, it is argued that all standardized social and cultural forms and structure have positive functions. Merton however argued that this contradicts what we find in the real world in which case it is clear that not every structure, custom, idea, belief and so forth, has positive functions neither can these functions be automatically universal.

Third is the postulate of indispensability. The argument here is that all standardized aspects of society not only have positive functions but also represent indispensable parts of the working whole. This postulate leads to the idea that all structures and functions are functionally necessary for society. No other structures and functions could work quite well as those that are currently found within society. Merton’s criticism was that we must at least be willing to admit that there are various structural and functional alternatives to be found within society.

Merton’s position was that all these functional postulates rely on non-empirical assertions based on abstract, theoretical system. Merton’s belief that empirical tests, not theoretical assertions are crucial to functional analysis led him to develop his paradigm of functional analysis as a guide to the integration of theory and research. He stated that any object that can be subjected to structural functional analysis must represent a standardized system that is patterned and repetitive item. He had in mind such things as social roles, institutional patterns, social process, cultural patterns, social structure, and devices for social control etc. Also, Merton introduced levels of functional analysis. Structural functionalists had generally restricted themselves to analysis of the society as a whole but Merton made it clear that analysis also could be done on an organization, institution or group. He also introduced the concepts of manifest and latest functions. Manifest functions are those that are intended while latest functions are unintended.

However, beyond the mainly sociological Parsonian and Mertonian analysis, in its popular Political Science usage which essentially started between 1960 and 1970, structural functionalism is traceable to the work of Gabriel Almond and Bingham Powell. They had viewed structural functionalism as an approach to compare political systems in which case they argue that understanding a political system presupposes understanding not only its institutions (or structures) but also the functions performed by these structures. In this light, Almond identified seven functions for every political system among which are rule making, rule application, rule adjudication, interest articulation, interest aggregation, political communication, political recruitment and socialisation.

This paper however looks beyond the above formal classifications of functions in a political system. Though colonialism has remained epochal (Ekeh, 1983), and has made most African states to imbibe Western orientations while continuously distorting indigenous social structures, yet certain informal structures still remain constant even if they have limited or shrinking space in core political superstructure. It is in this context that music remains a part of (not only social and economic but political) existence in most African societies. In the pre-colonial era, musicians are king’s subjects that sing praises of royalty. There are also drummers in the Western and Eastern part of Nigeria that use the talking drums to pass messages of hate, love or a mixture of both. In most cases, music play a functional role in Nigerian societies to an extent that it is used during religious rituals and masquerade festivals, wedding, at the birth of a child, during farming and other gatherings of people. Music is also mixed with storytelling to children while it was not out of place for women to sing on their way back from or to the streams. Similarly, Goge (a stringed instrument) and Kakaaki, a long trumpet is also not unseen during Sallah celebrations or in Emirs palaces in Northern Nigeria. Thus, in a way, music tends to find a near-universal functionalism to an extent that most societies make use of it in one way or the other though with varying capacities. Also in the seven functions identified by Almond which are rule making, rule application, rule adjudication, interest articulation, interest aggregation, political communication, political recruitment and socialization music has a critical role to play in them all with the role it plays in opinion formation, consensus of value and in general the power it has on the mind.

It is in this regard that this paper aims to among other thing locate musicians in terms of politics as obtainable in their representation of government and governance and the people as regards the goals the country wants to achieve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Andreas Kalyvas, (2005)”Popular Sovereignty, Democracy, and the Constituent Power”

Blaney, J. (2005). John Lennon: Listen To This Book. United Kingdom; Paper Jukebox.

Dick Weissman (2010) “Talking about a Revolution: Music and Social Change in America”. San Francisco: Backbeat Books

Easton, D. A. (1965a). A System Analysis of Political Life. New York: Wiley.

Easton, D. A. (1965b). A Framework for Political Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hell, NJ.

Easton, D. A. (1957). An Approach to the Analysis of Political Systems, World Polities. 9 (April).

Easton, D. A. (1953). The Political System. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York.

Eileen M. Hayes Songs in Black and Lavender: Race, Sexual Politics, and Women’s Music. (African American Music in Global Perspective.) Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Ekeh, P. P. (1983). Colonialism and Social Structure, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.

Enemuo, F. C. (1999). “Approaches and Methods to the Study of Politics.” In Anifowose, R. & Enemuo, F. (eds) Element of Politics. Malthouse Press: Lagos, et al. pp. 16-28.

Frith, S. (1989). World Music, Politics, and Social Change. New York: Manchester University Press. P.X

John Lennon’s legacy. (2000,11,03) BBC News Online. Entertainment. Retrieved: 11 Feb. 2009.

John Rawls, (1985) “Justice as Fairness: Political not Metaphysical,” Philosophy and Public Affairs

LLB Graduate Karen Lopez (2008) “Music and Social Activism: A Literature Review” (eBook)

Mick Gold, “Life & Life Only: Dylan at 60″ in Judas! magazine, April 2002, p. 43

Seyla Benhabib, (1994) “Deliberative Rationality and Models of Democratic Legitimacy”

Tobi Oshodi, McPhilips Nwachuckwu, and Hugo Odiogor (2011). “From solidarity melodies to rhythmic opposition: music and politics in Nigeria (1960-2010).”

Thomas McCarthy, (1994) “Kantian Constructivism and Reconstructivism: Rawls and Habermas in Dialogue”

http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/artofprotest.pdf

http://www.jstor.org

http://www.rockthevote.com/about/history-rock-the-vote/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

CASE STUDY: FELA ANIKULAPO-KUTI’S AFRO-BEAT

3.1       INTRODUCTION

The Nigerian music industry has produced and is still producing a lot of great music celebrities that play a major role in the political development of the country portraying music as political activism. Among these musicians includes; Tuface Idibia with “For Instance” and “E be Like Say”, Sound Sultan with “Jangbajantis”, and “Light Up Naija Area”, Black Face with “Hard life”, Eedris AbdulKarim, with “Jagajaga”, Wasiu Ayinde (aka Kwam 1) with “The Truth”, African China with “Mr President”, Timaya with “Dem Mama”, Nigga Raw with “Obodo”, “Ko Gbadun” and “Strong and Mighty”,  Lagbaja with “Campus”“Naija Must Sweet Again” and “So Wa”, P Square with “Stand Up” and “Oga Police”, just to mention a few in the contemporary Nigeria. However, it was Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome Kuti (later Fela Anikulapokuti which translates to “He Who Carries Death in His Pouch’ or ‘He who Holds Death in His Pocket” that was a symbolic representation of rhythmic opposition as captured in his Afro-beat. It’s almost impossible to overstate the impact and importance of Fela Anikulapo to the global musical village: producer, arranger, musician, political radical, outlaw and his symbolism comes to bear with the creation of Afro-Beat which was popularized in Africa in the 1970s that later came to gain international recognition. Its relevance to political science arises with not just the creation of this Afro-Beat but what it stands for, the ideology and the philosophy behind this genre of music.

 

 

3.2       IDEOLOGY BEHIND FELA’S AFRO-BEAT

Afro-beat is a style most closely associated with Nigeria, though practitioners and fans are found throughout West Africa though it is structured to encompass the whole of Africa. Its recordings are a prominent part of the world music category found throughout the developed world. It is An African classical music with an urgent message for the denizens it is a cross breeding of American funk music with elements of highlife, jazz, salsa, calypso, and other styles of West African music especially Yoruba traditional music that is about social political and cultural literacy i.e. a music that calls for change. Described as a “political weapon” by Carlos Moore (2010), the most popular and well-known performer of the genre, indeed the most famous Nigerian musician in history, is undoubtedly Fela Kuti. Fela Kuti began performing in 1961, but did not start playing in his distinctive Afro-beat style until his exposure to Sierra Leonean Afro-soul singer Geraldo Pino in 1963. Although Kuti is often credited as the only pioneer of Afro-beat, other musicians such as Orlando Julius Ekemode were also prominent in the early Afro-beat scene, where they combined highlife, jazz and funk. A brief period in the United States saw him exposed to the Black Power movement and the Black Panthers, an influence that he would come to express in his lyrics. After living in London briefly, he moved back to Lagos and opened a club, The Shrine, which was one of the most popular music spots in the city. He started recording with Africa ’70, a huge band featuring drummer Tony Allen, who has since gone on to become a well-known musician in his own right.

In the 1980s, Afro-beat became affiliated with the burgeoning genre of world music. In Europe and North America, so-called “world music” acts came from all over the world and played in a multitude of styles. Fela Kuti and his Afro-beat followers were among the most famous of the musicians considered world music. By the end of the ’80s and early ’90s, Afro-Beat had diversified by taking in new influences from jazz and rock and roll. The ever-masked and enigmatic Lágbájá became one of the standard-bearers of the new wave of Afrobeat, especially after his 1996 LP C’est Une African Thing.

The aforementioned thus makes it inherent to trace the history of the Nigerian music industry so as to understand every little detail about Afro-Beat. Little is known about the country’s music history prior to European contact, although bronze carvings dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries have been found depicting musicians and their instruments. Nigeria has been called “the heart of African music” because of its role in the development of West African highlife and palm-wine music, which fuses native rhythms with techniques imported from the Congo for the development of several popular styles that were unique to Nigeria, like apala, fuji, jùjú, highlife, and Yo-pop. Subsequently, Nigerian musicians created their own styles of United States hip hop music and Jamaican reggae. Following World War II, Nigerian music started to take on new instruments and techniques, including electric instruments imported from the United States and Europe. Rock N’ roll, soul, and later funk, became very popular in Nigeria. It is from this funk, highlife and jazz with the other western African music mentioned above that Afro-Beat draws from. In other words, Afro-Beat is all encompassing of previous forms of Nigerian music. It didn’t seek to be alien, as such, it was very much welcomed when it was newly introduced.

Afro-beat however, bitches brew and protest songs, motherland and mothership connection. It served as the continent first space program in line with a new form of music that brought the continent to be recognized internationally in the realm of music. The choice of language of communication of afro-beat as espoused by Fela is coincided with his perception of who is primary audience is. He sang mainly in English in that phase of his high modernist mode of African-American jazz tradition, in Yoruba during the reactive ethno-nationalist phase and in pidgin once Pan-Africanism became his main ideological focus and the need to cultivate disciples to this creed.

The philosophy of Afro-Beat popularly tagged “Felasophy” is characterized by two basic political ideology, “Pan-Africanism and Afrocentrism” which Fela liked to call “Africanism”. These ideologies are evident in his radical black nationalism.

Pan Africanism is a philosophy creed based on the conviction that the peoples of Africa descent share common bonds, historical experiences and goals and therefore should unite to achieve those goals. It generally denotes in simplistic terms the advocacy of political unity among African countries. This has included over time various pan African congress from 1900 to the activities of figures such as Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832 – 1912), Marcus Garvey (1887 – 1940), and W.E.B. DuBois (1868 – 1963) and especially to the widespread influence of the indefatigable George Padmore and his classic book, Pan Africanism or Communism (1956). It should however be noted that the emphasis of Pan Africanism was and is politics, that is, the struggle for independence from colonial rule, for statehood, and beyond that, for the invention of institutions and techniques of effective governance directed toward advancing the interests of blacks in modernity. On the African continent, canonical figures include Sekou Toure, first president of Guinea, and Kwame Nkrumah, first president of Ghana.

The immediate shepherds of Fela’s Pan Africanism were radical intellectual activists and leaders such as Kwame Nkrumah, Frantz Fanon, and Walter Rodney. Fanon’s emphasis on the psychological subjection of African’s to European norms and values and his astute reading of the tragedy that the newly emergent class of post- independence African leaders would become are themes strewn all over Fela’s works. From Rodney, Fela learned the enormous contribution of Africa, through slavery and colonialism, to European civilization generally and industrialization in particular. On the front cover of V.I.P. (Vagabonds in Power) (1979), there was a picture of Fela reading Rodney classic book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (1972) with what looks like an un-disturbable concentration. Fela sang in “Perambulator” (1983) that “Oyinbo no teach us nothing / Na we open dem eye / Na 500 years slavery cause am” (Europeans taught us nothing / It is we who civilized them / with 500 years of our slave labor); we know where the rigorous conceptual and ideological support for such sentiments came from. In Nkrumah’s case, who happened to be a family friend to fela, fela learnt to think African as Nkrumah who once proposed a united states of Africa and was instrumental in the establishment of the epochal organization of African unity replaced by African union in 2002. He also wrote books which includes Africa must unite (1963), Neo-colonialism,the last stage of imperialism (1965), and class struggle in Africa (1973). This made fela form his own Pan African oriented think tank, the Nigerian association of patriotic writers and artistes, as an ideological resource pool. By the end of the 1970’s, fela was more talking continental than nationality and switched from “Nigeria” to “Africa” in his speeches and songs.

Afrocentrism basically is a movement for the reformation of the conscious of both blacks and white but particularly blacks perceived to be hamstrung by the centuries of racist European thinking, teaching and general ideas. It is an escape to sanity. Unlike Pan Africanism which takes political as its primary terrain, Afrocentrism locates itself squarely in the cultural, which is more intensive and extensive. One of the more polemic objectives of the Afrocentrists is the reclamation of the Africanness of ancient Egypt in the idea that Africa is the origin of ancient civilization as the continent was in the forefront of the worlds adventure and the black pharaohs of ancient Egypt who built the pyramid and had obsession for the world of the dead contributed to the advancement of material civilization. They also believed that the Egyptians taught the Greeks what they know today so it is wrong to accredit the Greek philosophy with such inventions as the building of the grand lodge whose oblong shape is based upon Masonic principles and is presently copied by all secrete societies, mosques, churches, etc, which belonged to Africa.

Afrocentrists also advocates that the background to many African religions derives from the ancient black Egyptian mysteries order which regarded the human body as a prison house of the soul that can be liberated from its physical structure through the disciplines of the art and science, and indeed, a man can transform from his mortal body featured to become a deity or a god. They believe black Africa’s notion of one supreme God, creator of the universe, predates that of the Jews by thousand several years before Abraham. This themes are all evident in Fela’s music like his album cover of “shuffering and shmiling” features ancient Egyptian motives in the representation of African deities beckoning futilely to morose Africans apparently zombified by Christianity and Islam who are carting all their wealth to joyful bishops and imams.

From the fore going, he therefore advocated  in his public lectures on the generic theme of “Essence Of Culture In Development” delivered in several public institutions in Nigeria that “until these neo-colonial agents are defeated, it will be impossible to embark on any fundamental type of knowledge production whereby Africa can devise a syllabus that would relate black civilization to art, philosophy, literature, African language and pedagogy including religion history science and technology and the mass media” he believed that the media in Africa were introduced as instrument of perpetuating colonial rule and they have performed poorly. Forms such as proverbs, ritual and story can be incorporated in the communication process in order to achieve meaningful development. An African film should narrate stories in the true tradition of African style of narration. Our sense of industrialization also be tailored along the western experience, which has brought about a progressive loss of respect of life, for nature, for the environment they live in. indeed, he believes what we need is “naturology” not technology. Research in traditional medicine should be encouraged and medical students should be made to take special courses in traditional medicine. He believed in a cultural revolution advocating that “ If Europe and America used capitalism to develop, Russians used Marxism and Leninism, China used Maoism and Arabs used Mohamedanism, to develop, why can’t Africans use “NKRUMAISM”?

Also present in fela’s ideology is his solidarity with the oppressed lower class. He trumpeted their sounds to national attention and lived in their midst. In as much as he did not belong to them by birth from a mother who was one of the very few women in the world to win the Lenin peace price in the world, after his ten month trip from America, he could no longer bring himself to sing about love. He turned to the lower class and found his own voice which always put him at odds with Nigerian government. Also present is his irrepressible libertarianism which preaches complete freedom of thought and action. This has been said by many analyst of the life and times of fela to be the down fall and flaws of Fela’s ideology in the sense that he took this to mean he was free to do anything including smoke marijuana  which he assumed was not supposed to be a crime or the fact that many young girls lived in his house hold especially since he never kidnapped any one of them was supposed to be a crime. His flaws are also evident in one of his most popular songs which claims to understands the struggle for equality between the African male and woman as being infected with Westernization. Named “lady” the song advocates a domesticity where the African man reigns supreme over the African woman becomes African culture. Rightfully noted by Lindsay Barrett (2010), “Fela’s life cannot be said to have been either morally perfect or even professionally disciplined”. Regarding him as a flawed genius, he further asserts that “what convention might define as his shortcomings in his attitude towards women and life in general were in fact attributes of a mind that was always searching for the best way to live and create beauty for the oppressed masses, just as he played for them.

Olaniyan (2004) however advocates that fela’s music, ideas and lifestyle successfully broadcasted to young people totally new rebellious and impatient ideas that completely pushed out of their heart and minds any affection for the state. With his simple deconstructive insights, sardonic humor, and exhilarating sounds, he taught young people to see the state as fundamentally illegitimate, selfish, dictatorial, even unpatriotic and un-African and to see many of its policies as irredeemably foolish with full reference to the obasanjo’s military regime who fela considered to have destroyed the lives of the entire nation.

Knox Robinson  in Trevor Scloon Maker (2003) in his own view sees the importance of Fela’s ideology to be more mystical by asserting that “on the day people said goodbye to Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, the sun shone and the heavens rained at the same time. When this happens, a Nigerian might observe that a tiger has given birth to a child” thus in his opinion, fela was a divine figure sent to the world to liberate us (Africans) as he sang his praises all through his article.

Esuola (2011) and Olaniyan (2004) however share the same view as regards fela being an iconic figure that started real and loud political activism in Nigeria and paved way for further activist act by bringing about the first socially conscious and relentless generation in the country. Olaniyan opines that many of Fela’s followers then who were students later graduated to become fearless journalist, educators, civil rights lawyers, and social activist that were the bulwark of opposition to the hideous dictators general Ibrahim Babangida and General Sani Abacha, even Obasanjo’s second coming as an elected president.

Esuola (2011) however identifies two direct impacts of Fela’s music on the Nigerian political environment. He believes that it was the impact of Fela’s music “Country Of Pains (Akuna Kuna Senior Brother Of perambulator)” that brought a stop in the in the law of wandering introduced into the Nigerian law during the military regime. Though it was totally abolished in 2005, it was fela who made the act reduced with the release of this song that ask the questions of who were really the wanderers? Was it the citizens who left his house to purchase something or look for money that were the real wanderers or the police officials who stood around the roads with no destination just standing looking for whom to take money from? He believe that record made the act subsidized and later lead to the revoking of the law. The second impact identified by him is the maltreatment and arrest of the market woman i.e. puff puff seller, akara seller, moin moin seller, rice seller, food seller, amala seller, okoro seller, ice-cream seller, bread seller, meat seller, fried food seller, and seizure of their goods which is a case duly addressed in the same song, brought about a reduction in the acts.

 

3.3       CONCLUSION

The general impact of fela ideology portrayed by his music cannot be over emphasized. The greatest of all however remains the consciousness he created in the youths which what political activism is all about i.e. “the power of the mind”. Just like Olaniyan (2004) rightfully noted, “fela did not overthrown any government, his overall contribution was far more reaching, his potent detachment of the power of truth from any putative hegemony that the state might profess remains his central political effect and significance”. He still remains a figure celebrated and remembered because out of many, he stood out, he was like no other musician he didn’t only sing about the now, he sang about the future also as some of his lyrics sang about  twenty years ago still remain inherent in the Nigerian political system. Examples of such includes the insights to the dubiousness of religious leaders in his song “Shuffering And Smilling” (1978) where he urges people to open their eyes and see that the archbishop is in comfort so is the imam but the masses are suffering and smiling with these situation. This is evident in present Nigeria as religious leaders are said to be acquiring private jets while the congregation of their religious gatherings are unable to even afford the school fees of schools built by the very same religious association of which this very same congregation might have built these schools with their very own hands without any pay for the religious association.

Insights are also revealed in the song “Beast Of No Nation” (1989) where he asked “what is united about united nations?” we should ask this question in recent times with the issue of democratization with regards to the permanency of the five members of the of the security council of the united nation. They preach democracy but the themselves do not give equally opportunities to all members in decision making.

His continued relevance indeed shows that he was a man that refused to be silenced by mere death.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Carlos Moore (2010) “ Fela, This Bitch Of A Life” Abuja, Cassava republic press.

Olorunyomi (2005), “Afro Beat, Fela And The Imagined Continent” Ibadan, gold press ltd.

Tejumola Olaniyan (2004) “Arrest The Music : Fela And His Rebel Art And Politics” Indiana, Indiana university press.

Tobi Oshodi, McPhilips Nwachuckwu, and Hugo Odiogor (2011). “From Solidarity Melodies To Rhythmic Opposition: Music And Politics In Nigeria (1960-2010).”

Trevor Scloor Maker (2003) “ Fela From West Africa To West Broadway” U.s.a, Palgrave Macmillan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1       RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design is aimed at systematically drawing up the procedural stages and methods to be adopted in the investigation of a research problem. Thus, this research follows a carefully mapped out plan. Hypothesis have been set out for testing with relevant data to be gathered from the administration of questionnaire. A combination of qualitative and quantitative method is adopted.

4.2       POPULATION OF STUDY

It is only appropriate to identify the population sector for a particular study to enable the researcher gather data. Because music is a phenomena that attracts mostly youths, it is therefore necessary that youths should be the focus of this study. As such, the University Of Lagos, Yaba campus was selected for the study. The University Of Lagos has in population mostly youths within the age range of sixteen till thirty five which serves as the years within a human beings life as the youthful years.

4.3       SAMPLE SIZE

In order to manage the research within the time allocated for it and ensure the number of respondents was appropriately monitored, the sample size adopted was 200 respondents, 100 males, 100 females, from any faculty, operating any program as long as the person is a student of the university. All copies were returned and this served as a representation of the actual sample size for the research.

4.4       SAMPLING METHOD

In an attempt to avoid a high degree of sampling error and ensure that respondent were systematically selected, the random sampling method was adopted. The choice of the sampling method is based on the advantage that it gives to every member of the a population to participate in a study.

4.5       SOURCES OF DATA

This research relied basically on primary data drawn from the use of questionnaire and interview. Major research has not been conducted in the field of study when compared to other fields like elections and foreign policy as such, it becomes relatively necessary to locate the study within the realm of primary data.

4.6       VALIDITY OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENT

This refers to the extent to which the questionnaire the research matter. In order to reflect this, attention was focused on content validity. Divided in to two (2) sections, section A is to obtain qualitative information about the respondent like age, gender, e.t.c. while section B focusing on reference to the research problem, hypothesis and literature around the topic is based on a four point ticket scale, strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree, thus ensuring the validity of the measuring instrument.

4.7       RELIABILITY OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENT

Reliability involves the extent to which the questionnaire is consistent and the consistency of the response by selected respondent to the items on the questionnaire. To achieve the reliability of the measuring instrument, the researcher administered the questionnaire on two equal sampled subject i.e. male and female within an interval of seventeen (17) hours to determine the consistency of their response.

4.8       METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

Most often the nature of a particular research dictates the method of data collection. This researcher used the questionnaire and unstructured interview to collect data from respondent, the  questionnaire is preferred because it adequately restricts respondents answer to specifics of a question. Similarly, the unstructured interview was chosen to enable respondent give their views adequately.

4.9       METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

Data collected from respondent were analyzed and interpreted accordingly. The simple percentage was used to determine the proportion of respondents in response to each item on the questionnaire. In order to test formulated hypothesis, the T-test (SPSS) statistical tool was used.

SECTION A

4.10     DATA ANALYSIS

The data gathered through the administration of questionnaire are presented and analyzed supported with relevant interpretation. The formulated hypotheses are also tested using the appropriate rate and statistical formula. The preliminary rate for section A of the questionnaire are presented in  a tabular form and followed with a brief interpretation for clarity purposes.

Similarly, responses to section B of the questionnaire is converted into data form. The tables shown in this chapter are to reflect the data composition as drawn from the two sections of the questionnaire.

Table I : Distribution Of Respondent By Sex

Sex      Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 100 50%
Female 100 50%
Total 200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

From the table above, it is obvious that this research aims at being able to generates results based on equality of gender as it sort to equalize the number male respondent to female respondent in the administering of questionnaire so as to be able to generate answers that will not be one sided as regards gender thus very generalizable

Table II : Distribution Of Respondent By Age Range

Age range Frequency

Male          Female         Total

Percentage (%)
19yrs and below 19               50                     69 34.5%
20yrs – 29yrs 70               46                    116 58%
30yrs – 39yrs 11               4                     15 7.5%
Total 100            100                   200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

The analysis above emphasizes the fact the most popular age range within the University Of Lagos is 20yrs – 29yrs with the largest number of 58%. The age range with the lowest score of  7.5% is 30yrs – 39yrs which is the deviating age from youthfulness. This shows that the area where the research was carried out is appropriate for the research as the majority of the population in the location are youths.

Table III : Distribution Of Respondent By Favorite Music Genre

Music Genre

 

Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Hip-hop / Rnb 33             50                83 41.5%
Gospel 7               18                25 12.5%
Rap 20             10                30 15%
Rock/Jazz/Soul/Blues/Pop/Country 7                5                 12 6%
Traditional 2                0                  2 1%
Fuji 6                0                  6 3%
Afro-Beat 9                5                 14 7%
All 7                7                 14 7%
None 9                5                 14 7%
Total 100          100               200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

This analysis shows that contemporary youths are very attached to genre of music that originated from the west much more than local music. Though Hip-hop / Rnb is also present in the Nigerian music industry, it is foreign music genre has the highest counting range with 41.5% with regards to this research, thus emphasizing the traits of neocolonialism still existing in Nigeria, among the youths and in the music industry.

Table IV : If Respondent Listen To Music Regularly

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Yes 86               88               174 87%
No 14               12                 26 13%
Total 100            100               200 100%

Source: Field Survey 2011

From the above, it is established that music is an important aspect of the lives of contemporary Nigerian youth with 87% of them asserting that they listen to music regularly and only 13% do not. Since this isn’t just a mere assertion but scientifically backed with proof, music should hence forth not be just be left alone but be seen as a critical tool.

Table V : If Respondents Are Familiar With Fela Anikulapo-Kuti

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Yes 90              75                165 82.5%
No 10              25                 35 17.5%
Total 100           100               200 100%

Source: Field Survey 2011

Fela seems to be very popular. In as much as when his music was really in vogue, the presently existing youths were not born or were still toddlers. This establishes that Fela is an icon that cannot be forgotten in years to come in as much as his presences no longer dwells with us.

Table VI : If Respondent Have Been Involved In Any Form Of Political Activism

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Yes 36             15                   51 25.5%
No 64             82                  146 73%
N/A 0                3                      3 1.5%
Total 100          100                 200 100%

Source: Field Survey 2011

From the above, it is very clear that Nigerian youths are very parochial when it comes to political issues. Only 25.5% of them have been involved in political activism. This is a critical issue as it is not suitable for the political development of any country, as such, some sort of grooming is necessary to improve on the political activeness of youths in Nigeria and music seems to be very appropriate for this grooming since as previously noted in the work, 87% of them listen to music regularly.

SECTION B

Table VII : That Music Affect Behavior

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 48              43                  91 45.5%
Agree 45              44                  89 44.5 %
Disagree 5                  9                  14 7%
Strongly Disagree 2                  4                   6 3%
Total 100           100                200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

The table above shows that the majority of the sample population feels that music affects behavior that means music actually affect the way they behave. If this is the case then, the reason for the parochial nature of Nigerian youth is the musicians as they do not sing about politics. If they do, the Nigerian youths are supposed to be very political active since majority of them listen to music regularly.

Table VIII : If Music Can Be Used To Enlighten People About Issues

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 61                68                 129 64.5%
Agree 37                28                  65 32.5%
Disagree 2                    4                    6 3%
Strongly Disagree 0                    0                    0 0%
Total 100              100               200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

The results shown establishes the positive usefulness of music. if only 3% of negative response can be gotten as regards music being a tool used to enlighten people about issues, this usefulness should be recognized and used to it maximum capacity so as to achieve positive results.

Table IX : If Music Can Encourage Social Change

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 55              41                   96 48%
Agree 41              55                   96 48%
Disagree 4                 4                     8 4%
Strongly Disagree 0                 0                     0 0%
Total 100           100                 200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

If music is believed to encourage social change, then the most desired change Nigeria wants can be achieved through this medium.

Table X : If Respondent Sings To Vent Political Frustrations

Options Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 15                6                      21 10.5%
Agree 40              49                      89 44.5%
Disagree 35              31                      66 33%
Strongly Disagree 9                13                      22 11%
N/A 1                  1                        2 1%
Total 100           100                    200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

There is still an higher response from the positive side ( i.e. Strongly Agree, 10.5% + Agree, 45% = 55%) than from the negative side ( i.e. Disagree, 33% + Strongly Disagree, 11% = 45%), thus this further emphasizes the political role music plays in the lives of youth, though this time, not in form of passing information but in form of letting out aggression which could ease tension and prevent extreme acts.

Table XI : That Musicians Have Contributed To Political Reforms

            Options           Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 22              21                  43 21.5%
Agree 54              55                 109 54.5%
Disagree 15              16                  31 15.5%
Strongly Disagree 9                  8                  17 8.5%
Total 100           100                200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

With 76% positive response from the respondent, musicians should put in more efforts so as to achieve 100% political reforms on their part.

 

Table XII : If Respondent Sees Fela Anikulapo-Kuti  As A Political Artist

            Options           Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 60               47                107 53.5%
Agree 30               39                  69 34.5%
Disagree 9                  8                   17 8.5%
Strongly Disagree 1                  5                    6 3%
N/A 0                  1                    1 0.5%
Total 100           100                200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

88% of the sample population see Fela as a political artist. This emphasizes that irrespective of the moral and ethical shortcoming of Fela’s life, there is no doubt that he was a political artist that expressed the views of the oppressed through his music.

Table XIII : That Fela Anikulapo-Kuti  Have Contributed To Political Reforms

            Options           Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 38               43                     81 40.5%
Agree 50              36                      86 43%
Disagree 12              14                      26 13%
Strongly Disagree 0                  4                        4 2%
N/A 0                  3                        3 1.5%
Total 100          100                 200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

83.5% observed that Fela as a musician as contributed to political reforms. This automatically answers the question that music is a strong political tool of political activism that can lead to development in Nigeria i.e. political reforms thus, it should be used effectively to that respect.

Table XIV : That Fela Anikulapo-Kuti’s  Songs Concerns Respondents

            Options           Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 42                14                   56 28%
Agree 34                44                   78 39%
Disagree 19                28                   47 23.5%
Strongly Disagree 5                  13                   18 9%
N/A 0                    1                     1 0.5%
Total 100           100                200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

As noted above, 88% of the sample population see Fela as a political artist  but there is a sharp decrease from that to 67% when asked if his songs concerns them. This means that Nigerian youths feels that political issues does not concern them thus emphasizing their apolitical nature.

Table XV : That Music Is Being Exploited By Political Propaganda

            Options           Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 15                14                    29 14.5%
Agree 53                49                 102 51%
Disagree 27                 29                  56 28%
Strongly Disagree 5                    7                  12 6%
N/A 0                    1                     1 0.5%
Total 100           100                200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

This shows that our politician have actually been deceiving youths through music to preach their false political propaganda that they promise but never bring to reality.

Table XVI : That Political Activism Through Music Has Been Effective In Nigeria

            Options           Frequency

Male        Female       Total

Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 12                   7                  19 9.5%
Agree 20                 25                  45 22.5%
Disagree 53                 58                111 55.5%
Strongly Disagree 15                10                   25 12.5%
Total 100           100                200 100

Source: Field Survey 2011

This asserts that our contemporary musicians have been using music for selfish gain rather than for the betterment of the totality of the population. Since it has been established that music affects the politics of a country, it is thus obvious that musician are not using it in this respect because if it were so, they should have contributed more to political reforms. Just like Kwame Nkrumah ones said, “seek ye first the political kingdom and every other thing shall be added unto you” musicians should try to adopt this for their own betterment and the betterment of the society at large.

4.11     TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

H1: Listening to songs about political activism would increase the possibility of being involved in political activism. i.e. people that have been involved in political activism believe in the power of music to foster political development.

H0: Listening to songs about political activism would not increase the possibility of being involved in political activism. i.e. people that have not been involved in political activism do not believe in the power of music to foster political development.

To test this hypothesis, T-test was applied as follows:

Table XVII : TESTING HYPOTHESIS

  N MEAN D. F CALCULATED t TABLE t
Had been Involved in activism 51 13.22 195 8.879 1.65
Had not been involved in

activism

146 10.26      

Source: Field Survey 2011

Decision Rule

Reject the null hypothesis  if  t calculated  is greater than t tabulated, otherwise accept it.

 

 

Results

The t test procedure was used to determine if the significance level for tested hypothesis is significant i.e. (μ1> μ2). Calculated t was 8.879 while tabulated t was 1.65, (see Table XVII). Since the calculated t value is higher than tabulated t, the hypothesis that Listening to songs about political activism would increase the possibility of being involved in political activism. i.e. people that have been involved in political activism believe in the power of music to foster political development at 5% significance level was therefore accepted because a significant relationship was established thus having a 95% degree of confidence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      SUMMARY

. Music is part of virtually every culture on Earth, but it varies widely among cultures in style and structure. Music is the medium that connects the written word to social rights issues, conveying a message of hope for the audience. Music is a form of freedom and expression, often used to evoke political issues, serving as an advocator, campaigner and inspirer of social justice. Melodies and lyrics that seek justice amid and beyond cities and nations, into the global realm, have marked significant eras in history and the fight for freedom and tolerance.

Political activism in its own vein is the intentional and conscious effort to bring about social, economic, environmental and overall political changes in a particular geographical setting. It is creating the consciousness about basically. political issues which is also incorporated in social and economical issues among a certain group of people in a particular geographical location.Political activism  however is much more than turning out on voting day and ticking a ballot sheet, it incorporates a burning desire to make a difference that we are willing to embody the solution in ourselves and to embody such solution takes courage, commitment and a deep understanding of the power of our minds. Music deals largely with the mind either from the position of creating it or from the position of receiving it, its messages are delivered straight to the mind that sooner or later becomes a part of your subconscious probably unknowingly to you

This study was motivated by contemporary youth’s exposure to music which is highly increased via portable music players and phones including iPods, I phones, and blackberry’s, this has made them so attached to music as very often, they walk around the street with ear piece stuck in their ears and they are lost in this world of music and forget the present world they are in. Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents. Listening to popular music is considered by society to be a part of growing up and As political issues begin to seep into the lives of teens and young adults, the regular conventions of popular music need to be changing to altercate to this shift in culture.

Thus, the question arises, if this is the norm for youths (i.e. to go about with music players), why don’t we use to our own advantage? That is making them aware of political issues as such arousing a participant political culture in them by singing about them. The case study adopted in this work (Fela Anikulapo Kuti’s Afro Beat) shows to a large extent that music can be very politicalized as musicians can take up this role of political preachers just like Fela. His music preached two key political ideologies, Pan-Africanism and Afrocentrism that functioned by bringing about the first socially conscious and relentless generation in the country. and also, many of Fela’s followers then who were students later graduated to become fearless journalist, educators, civil rights lawyers, and social activist that were the bulwark of opposition to the hideous dictators general Ibrahim Babangida and General Sani Abacha, even Obasanjo’s second coming as an elected president.

Further research in this work from the questionnaire administered shows that;

^ Music is an important aspect of the lives of contemporary Nigerian youth with 87% of them asserting that they listen to music regularly and only 13% do not.

^ Nigerian youths are very parochial when it comes to political issues. Only 25.5% of them have been involved in political activism.

^ Music plays an important role in the socialization of Nigerian youths

^ Our contemporary Nigerian musicians have been using music for selfish gain rather than for the betterment of the totality of the population.

^ Listening to songs about political activism would increase the possibility of being involved in political activism.

5.2      CONCLUSION

The problems inherent in Nigeria’s political system goes far more than attacking it from a general perspective as methods to do so as proved abortive. Approaching the issues from an individual perspective is therefore necessary and this applies to a value reorientation among the people of Nigeria most especially the youths. Rightfully noted by Prof. Wole Soyinka, Nigerian youths are “morally bankrupt”. This assertion calls for a critical attention as soon as possible as the youths of any society are the running wheel and future of such society so what they are listening to that plays a major role in their socialization should be aimed at waking up this youth politically and as such, creating a political awareness among them and therefore activating their spirit of activism.

Music is a very efficient tool tested and trusted to bring about this so desired change that all political scientists sort for as it has in time past. So if more efforts is put to the corse, there would be a greater return in terms of achieving the desired goal.

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations are apt in a study of this nature, because musicians as it were are not using the musical power in the right context as such, passing unnecessary and jargons in their music to the youths.

It is therefore necessary that musicians should find it imperative as one of their functions to sing songs that would arouse political consciousness in the youths. Their major target should not be money. After all, Kwame Nkrumah rightfully noted  that “seek ye first the political kingdom and every other thing shall be added unto you”

Rolling Dollar an old aged musician rightfully asserted that contemporary musicians do not understand what I call music that some of them would just go into the studio and sing whatever they like. Songs that do not pass any message across. This  means that music in Nigeria in the old days pass message across and had meaning, contemporary musicians should as such trace back their roots by preaching messages through songs and realize the essence and powers of music and basically try to use it in our traditional context just as Fela did so it can preach to the generality of the population.

Conclusively, musicians should be patient, tolerant and above all love their job because if they do, they would want to use it for the general good of the populace and its only by this them as musicians and the country can move forward.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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http://www.answers.com/topic/

http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/artofprotest.pdf

http://www.jstor.org

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